Additional Research

Nine Years War

In Ireland, the English had controlled little more than Dublin and the countryside roughly twenty miles around it – an area known as the “Pale”. The Dublin parliament recognized Henry as “King of Ireland”, while Thomas Cromwell oversaw the closing of monasteries and convents, and the confiscation of Church lands and property.


Ulster Plantations

The majority of the settlers of the Ulster Plantation would be Scots. The Lowland Scots were enticed by the prospect of building permanent homes on better farmland with the hope to be free of having their homes destroyed by Highland Scots and the English.


Irish Rebellion

From their beginning, the Irish Rebellion and the English Revolution were intertwined, however Ireland was much more divided than was England. Both Charles I and Parliament denounced the Irish uprising, but both were too occupied by domestic matters to come to the aid of the Protestant settlers


Cromwellian Plantation

In Ulster, Protestant Parliamentarian General George Monk was under severe pressure to succumb to Catholic Royalist demands, while in Dublin Governor Colonel Michael Jones was virtually encircled by the forces of the Earl of Ormonde and Lord Inchiquin. With fears that Ireland might become the base for a Royalist resurgence, the English Government dispatched Oliver Cromwell to quench the growing embers of revolt.


Williamite Wars & Plantation

In 1672, William took over Dutch leadership from Jan de Witt, grand pensionary, and by the end of 1673 had driven the French from Dutch soil. William made peace with England in 1674, and with Spanish and Austrian support, made peace with France in 1678 with the signing of the Treaty of Nijmegan.